HACCP was developed by the Pillsbury Company as an answer to the request of the NASA for the purpose of production of astronaut food that is 100% safe for their health. The concept developed by Pillsbury Company was named HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points).
In time, HACCP proved to be the most efficient system for the prevention and elimination of health hazards in food and so it was introduced by AO/WHO Codex Alimentarius (Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization) into its codex. Since 1993, the EU regulations 1993/43 EC plan to introduce this system in food production and in 1995 the implementation HACCP system became mandatory in EU member states. In 1996, The Codex Alimentarious Commission adopted the Recommended International Code of Practice - General Principles of Food Hygiene, CAC/RCP 1-1969, Rev. 4-2003), last amended in 2003. Grading and certification of HACCP system is conducted based on these principles.
HACCP actually consists of two segments, where:
HA represents hazard identification in each stage of production, processing and distribution of foods and beverages, then risk analysis, i.e. the probability of hazard occurrence, and finally the estimate of their level of hazard to people's health.
CCP (Critical Control Point) - represents the segment for the identification of points, i.e. process elements and activities in production, processing and distribution of foods and beverages where there is identified danger of hazardous food contamination. Defining parameters (threshold levels) in these points enables us to control them and apply preventive measures, which prevent or eliminate the risk for the safety of the foods or beverages, or decrease the risk to an acceptable level.
HACCP system is an integral part of ISO 22000:2005 standard system of food safety management which, within the FSMS (Food Safety Management System), represents the system for analysis of hazard for food safety and for identification and monitoring of the critical control points with identified hazards. Because of that, many erroneously regard HACCP as a standard (which it is not) "from the field to the table", which is actually the synonym for ISO 22000:2005, which, unlike HACCP system, also monitors the primary production of food by standardized monitoring of the food suppliers.
Gost R (государственный стандарт России - The Russian National Standard) is a standard system which regulates the quality requirements for the products and services provided in the territory of the Russian Federation. The system was developed from the GOST system, which was the governing system during the existence of the USSR, and after its dissolution was applied in the Commonwealth of Independent States - CIS. Thus, the GOST standard is still applied in the territory of the Commonwealth of Independent States, while GOST R is implemented only in the Russian Federation.
The basic purpose of the standard is to regulate the requirements which have to be met in order to enter the Russian market, and they are applied only to the end products. That means that every product intended for the Russian market HAS to have the certificate of compliance with the GOST R standard. ISO certificates and the CE mark are not sufficient for the placement in the Russian market.
GOST R standard certification
The basic subdivision of standards is based on the certification criterion. In that aspect, the standards are divided in:
Mandatory standard - applicable to all products governed by the Russian law which have to comply with specific standards and product specifications. According the law, products are divided into those which are subject to the mandatory certification and the products which have to be issued with the Declaration of Conformity.
Voluntary standard - related to the products that are not regulated by the Russian law and are not subject to mandatory certification. It is applied in cases when the producer who intends to conduct business in the Russian market decides to formally prove the conformity to certain standards and thus increase the competitiveness.
Certification types can be divided according to the type of business conducted in the Russian market, as well as according to the validity period of the certificate:
For the contractual supply of products during a designated time period.
The certificate is issued to the importer from Russia who requests the product approval. The certificate validity period is the same as the validity period of the contract, but cannot exceed 1-2 years. The certificate is issued upon the request of the importer. In certain cases it is necessary to subject samples to laboratory testing.
For serial production. The certificate is issued directly to the manufacturer for the period of 1 - 3 years. Certificate allows unlimited export of products throughout the duration of the certificate. It includes regular inspection of samples and inspection of the production facilities or factories of the manufacturer by the certificating body which issued the certificate, most frequently in situations when the manufacturer does not comply with ISO standards.
For the supply of a certain amount of products, determined by contract. The certificate can be issued to the importer from Russia or the manufacturer who can validate that it has customers in Russia to whom the products would be delivered. The validity period of the certificate is proportional to the amount of product designated by the contract, so that the contract allows one or more deliveries, depending on the contract.
Ford the products not subject to mandatory certification, it is recommended to acquire the Exemption Letter. Twice a year, the government of Russia issues a list of products not subject to specific certification. Therefore, the manufacturer who intends to sell products in the Russian market submits the Exemption Letter to the governing public institutions, after which the letter is verified and delivered to the importer from Russia who imports the products. In addition to that, the manufacturer is obligated to submit all relevant technical documentation in relation to the production, in order to determine if the Exemption Letter can be verified or if it is necessary to perform further examination and certification of product parts.
The Russian public body regulating standardization, accreditation and certification is called Gosstandart (Gosudarstvennyy standart). Their jurisdiction monitors all official certifying bodies, test laboratories and authorized revisers in Russia. All relevant bodies are stationed in Moscow, and each of them covers a precisely defined area for certification, so that there are no interferences and all manufacturers know in advance which institution is the governing body for their certification. Also, all relevant bodies governed by Gosstandart perform the duty of regular inspection, intended only for the manufacturers certified for three years in serial production. The manufacturer bears all the expenses of the inspections, sampling and laboratory tests. The details of inspections are agreed upon in a separate contract, after the issuance of the GOST R certificate. If the manufacturer does not comply with the Inspection Agreement, the governing certifying body forwards an official letter to Gosstandart which officially declares the termination of the contract and the certificate in the territory of Russia.
Advantages of the GOST R standard
The fundamental advantage for companies which have the GOST R certificate is the license to place products in the new, vast market - Russia. Considering that the GOST R standards certify final products, manufacturers without implemented ISO standards have no difficulties in acquiring the GOST R certificate, provided they comply with the demands of that standard. On the other hand, if the company complies with ISO standards and has their certificates, the acquisition of the GOST R standard is easier.
The HALAL system is a set of rules and guidelines for the production and preparation of food in compliance with Islamic religious customs. Among other regulations, this standard forbids the use of certain products such as: pork, blood, alcohol, meat from dead animals, carnivores, donkeys, dogs, and food prepared with wine, cakes prepared with any kind of alcohol, food which contains emulsifiers extracted from pork or animal fat. A part of the standardization process is the introduction of the procedure which determines whether the raw materials used in food production are allowed by the Muslim law, or "haram" (Arabic: حَرَام ḥarām, meaning sinful, forbidden). After the fulfilment of the prescribed rules, the product is awarded a corresponding certificate confirming the HALAL status of the product and approving the use of the HALAL logo on the product packaging and labels.
In addition to specific requirements, most of the HALAL system requirements are identical to the HACCP and ISO 9001 standards, which makes certification significantly easier for the institutions applying both systems.
Unlike other standards and the HACCP system, the HALAL certificate is not in the classical certification and accreditation system. The certificates for this system are awarded by organizations authorized by the Islamic Religious Community. In Serbia, there is an official organization for the award of HALAL certificate, the HALAL Agency of the Islamic Community of Serbia (Serbian: Agencija Islamske Zajednice Srbije). When introducing the HALAL system, the interested companies make statements declaring that they are familiar with all regulations of the HALAL standard, and all restrictions contained therein.
The Advantages of the Implementation of the HALAL Standard:
- The market value for the HALAL certified food and foodstuffs in the world is estimated at 547 billion USD.
- The Muslim population is 1.6 billion.
- Out of the total food and foodstuffs trade on the global level, the HALAL market covers 12% of the trade.